Types of Composting

Composting is a natural process that allows organic materials to decompose into nutrient-rich soil. It is not only an environmentally friendly way to manage waste but also a great method for improving the health and fertility of the soil for gardening and farming purposes. We will discuss the various Types of Composting methods. Let us look at five significant areas that must be “controlled” during composting. These are:

Feedstock and Nutrient Balance

Feedstock refers to the materials used in composting, such as kitchen scraps, yard trimmings, and animal manure. These materials should be carefully selected to ensure a balanced mixture of carbon-rich (or brown) and nitrogen-rich (or green) components. A proper blend of these elements will provide the necessary energy for microorganisms to break down the organic matter efficiently.

Achieving the right balance between carbon and nitrogen is essential because excesses or deficiencies can disrupt composting. If there is an excess of carbon-rich materials, like dried leaves or wood chips, decomposition may slow down due to their low nitrogen content.

Moisture Content

Moisture content is a critical factor that must be carefully controlled during the composting process. Composting is the natural decomposition of organic matter into nutrient-rich soil, and moisture plays a vital role in this transformation. The ideal moisture level for effective composting ranges between 40% and 60%. Anything below or above this range can adversely affect the decomposition process.

Types of Composting

Maintaining proper moisture levels is crucial because it impacts the activity of microorganisms responsible for breaking down organic materials. Insufficient moisture reduces microbial activity, resulting in slow decomposition and an extended composting period.

Oxygen Flow

Composting is a natural process where organic waste decomposes into nutrient-rich soil amendments. Microorganisms break down the waste material through aerobic respiration, requiring an adequate oxygen supply. Insufficient oxygen can lead to anaerobic conditions, causing foul odors and slowing decomposition rates.

Creating well-structured heaps or windrows is important to ensure optimal oxygen flow within compost piles. These structures allow air to circulate freely throughout the pile, facilitating aerobic decomposition. Regular turning or mixing of the compost helps maintain sufficient oxygen levels by preventing the formation of compacted layers that impede airflow.

Particle Size

Particle size refers to the dimensions of individual particles in a material, and it plays a significant role in determining the overall quality and success of the composting process.

Types of Composting

Controlling particle size during composting is essential for several reasons. Smaller particle sizes provide more surface area for microorganisms to interact with, leading to faster decomposition rates. Finely shredded materials will break down quicker than larger chunks or whole items. Properly sized particles allow for better airflow within the compost pile or bin, facilitating oxygen transfer and reducing anaerobic conditions that can lead to unpleasant odors. Add fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, tea leaves, and yard trimmings to the compost pile. But here is a question that can you compost eggshells?


Temperature control is a crucial aspect of composting that ensures the success of the process. Specific temperature ranges must be maintained throughout the composting process for this breakdown to occur efficiently.

During the initial phase of composting, known as the mesophilic stage, temperatures typically range from 68°F to 113°F (20°C to 45°C). Bacteria and fungi are most active in decomposing organic matter at these temperatures. As they consume oxygen and produce heat as a byproduct, temperatures within a compost pile naturally rise. Monitoring these temperature changes regularly and adjusting accordingly by turning or aerating the pile if it becomes too hot is important.

Types of Composting

The below-mentioned Types of Composting methods are great for small indoor spaces. Keep reading!

Aerobic Composting

Aerobic composting is a natural process that breaks down organic waste materials into nutrient-rich soil. Unlike anaerobic composting, which occurs without oxygen and produces foul-smelling byproducts, aerobic composting relies on oxygen-loving microorganisms to efficiently decompose organic matter. This method is environmentally friendly and beneficial for gardeners and farmers looking to improve soil fertility.

During aerobic composting, an initial mix of green and brown materials, such as grass clippings, leaves, kitchen scraps, and wood chips, is piled together in a designated area. Oxygen is then introduced by turning or aerating the pile regularly. The microorganisms responsible for decomposition require a sufficient air supply to carry out their work effectively. As these organisms break down the organic matter, they generate heat that accelerates the decomposition process further.

Anaerobic Composting

Anaerobic or fermentation composting is an alternative method of decomposing organic waste without needing oxygen. Traditional aerobic composting, which relies on oxygen to break down organic matter, anaerobic composting occurs in an oxygen-free environment. This process can be particularly useful for those dealing with limited space or resources and is gaining popularity among urban gardeners and small-scale farmers.

The key difference between aerobic and anaerobic composting is the type of microorganisms involved. While aerobic composting relies on bacteria that thrive in oxygen, anaerobic decomposition is carried out by a different group of microbes called methanogens. These organisms produce methane gas as they break down organic matter, resulting in unique benefits and considerations for anyone interested in using this method.


Vermicomposting: Harnessing the Power of Earthworms for Sustainable Waste Management

Types of Composting

Vermicomposting is often called worm composting. This natural process involves using earthworms to break down food scraps, yard trimmings, and other organic materials, resulting in a valuable end product known as vermicompost.

Earthworms play a critical role in vermicomposting. Their digestive systems are highly efficient at separating organic matter into simpler compounds that plants can easily absorb. As they consume the waste material, earthworms excrete rich dark castings or vermicast – the key ingredient of vermicompost.

Benefits of Vermicomposting

It uses earthworms to break down kitchen scraps, yard trimmings, and other organic materials into nutrient-rich compost. This natural process offers numerous benefits, making it an increasingly popular choice for eco-conscious individuals and gardeners.

  • Its ability to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills.
  • Diverting organic waste from conventional trash bins, this practice significantly lowers greenhouse gas emissions produced in landfill sites.
  • Studies have shown that vermicomposting can reduce methane emissions by up to 90%.
  • Vermiculture allows for producing high-quality compost that can be used as a natural fertilizer in gardens or farms.

Aerated Windrow Composting

What sets aerated windrow composting apart from traditional methods is the incorporation of forced aeration systems that infuse oxygen into the pile.

The process begins by carefully layering the organic materials in a specific ratio to ensure optimal decomposition. The piles are then regularly turned using specialized equipment that simultaneously introduces fresh air. This constant aeration promotes aerobic microbial activity, accelerating the breakdown of organic matter and preventing the production of unpleasant odors associated with anaerobic digestion.

Aerated Static Pile Composting

Aerated Static Pile Composting: An Efficient and Sustainable Waste Management Solution

Aerated static pile composting has emerged as an efficient and sustainable solution for managing large-scale organic waste. This technique involves the creation of carefully engineered piles of organic materials that are then aerated using blowers or fans.

The key advantage of aerated static pile composting lies in its ability to maintain optimal conditions for microbial activity throughout the composting process. By introducing oxygen into the piles, aerobic microorganisms thrive and accelerate decomposition, resulting in faster breakdown of organic matter.

In-Vessel Composting

In-Vessel Composting: An Innovative Solution for Sustainable Waste Management

This innovative process involves the controlled decomposition of organic materials inside enclosed containers, providing an optimal environment for microorganisms to break down the waste into nutrient-rich compost.  

The process begins with collecting organic waste from various sources such as households, restaurants, and agricultural farms. The collected waste is then transported to specialized facilities equipped with in-vessel composters. These units are designed to maintain ideal conditions for microbial activity through precise regulation of temperature, moisture levels, aeration, and nutrient content.

Bokashi Composting

Bokashi composting is a unique and innovative method of composting that originated in Japan. It involves using a specialized mixture of beneficial microorganisms to break down organic waste quickly and efficiently. Bokashi composting can handle many materials, including meat, dairy products, and cooked foods. This makes it an ideal solution for those living in urban areas or with limited outdoor space.


Several Types of Composting methods can suit different preferences and circumstances. Traditional composting is a simple and effective option for those with ample space and time to manage the process. Vermicomposting offers a convenient solution for those who want to compost indoors or have limited outdoor space. Bokashi composting provides a fast and odorless method for breaking down food waste. Aerobic composting is a great choice for those interested in large-scale or commercial operations. With so many options available, anyone can find a composting method that fits their needs and helps them contribute to a more sustainable future. Start composting today and make a positive impact on the environment!


Can I compost at home?

Absolutely! Home composting is a great way to reduce waste and produce nutrient-rich compost for your garden. You can use various methods like traditional compost bins, vermicomposting with worms, or indoor Bokashi systems.

What can be added to a compost pile/bin?

You can add fruit and vegetable scraps, coffee grounds, tea leaves, eggshells, yard trimmings (like grass clippings and leaves), shredded paper or cardboard (without glossy coatings), and plant-based materials like straw or hay.

Can I use finished compost in my garden right away?

Let finished compost cure for a few weeks before using it in your garden beds or as potting soil is recommended. This completes any remaining decomposition processes and ensures optimal plant nutrient availability.

Maria Khan